E-ISSN 2683-5961 | ISSN 2354-1814
 

Research Article

Online Publishing Date:
21 / 12 / 2023

 


Health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in bread and popcorn snacks consumed in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State

Ibrahim Sani Shabanda, Azeezat Olateenuke Aare.


Abstract
The health risks resulting from heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Ni consumed in bread and popcorn snacks in Birnin-Kebbi, Kebbi State were investigated. The health risk assessment was conducted in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The estimated daily intake (EDI) for all the studied metals in all the samples was found to be below the provisional tolerable limit based on Codex and the European Union (EU). The hazard quotient (HQ) of all the metals in all the samples were observed to be less than 1, indicating an absence of health risk for the consumers of snacks in the study area. The hazard index (HI) which is the summation of all the hazard quotients for all the metals in bread was 0.8143 and in popcorn was 0.526 which were also less than 1. The results of this study show consumption of bread and popcorn is safe from the risk of the heavy metals. However, long accumulation of these toxic metals may lead to health consequences. Therefore, continuous monitoring of snacks in the study area should be done by the agencies concerned to safeguard the health of the population.

Key words: Heay metals, bread, health risk, popcorn, snacks


 
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Pubmed Style

Shabanda IS, Aare AO. Health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in bread and popcorn snacks consumed in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Equijost. 2023; 10(1): 42-45.


Web Style

Shabanda IS, Aare AO. Health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in bread and popcorn snacks consumed in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. https://www.equijost.com/?mno=98862 [Access: March 01, 2024].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Shabanda IS, Aare AO. Health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in bread and popcorn snacks consumed in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Equijost. 2023; 10(1): 42-45.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Shabanda IS, Aare AO. Health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in bread and popcorn snacks consumed in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Equijost. (2023), [cited March 01, 2024]; 10(1): 42-45.



Harvard Style

Shabanda, I. S. & Aare, . A. O. (2023) Health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in bread and popcorn snacks consumed in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Equijost, 10 (1), 42-45.



Turabian Style

Shabanda, Ibrahim Sani, and Azeezat Olateenuke Aare. 2023. Health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in bread and popcorn snacks consumed in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Equity Journal of Science and Technology, 10 (1), 42-45.



Chicago Style

Shabanda, Ibrahim Sani, and Azeezat Olateenuke Aare. "Health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in bread and popcorn snacks consumed in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State." Equity Journal of Science and Technology 10 (2023), 42-45.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Shabanda, Ibrahim Sani, and Azeezat Olateenuke Aare. "Health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in bread and popcorn snacks consumed in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State." Equity Journal of Science and Technology 10.1 (2023), 42-45. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Shabanda, I. S. & Aare, . A. O. (2023) Health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in bread and popcorn snacks consumed in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Equity Journal of Science and Technology, 10 (1), 42-45.





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