E-ISSN 2683-5961 | ISSN 2354-1814
 

Research Article

Online Publishing Date:
03 / 01 / 2024

 


Phytochemical constituents of methanolic and chloroform extracts of citrus sinensis peels and their antimicrobial effects on some human pathogens

MARK MADUMELU, BEATRICE NKIRUKA IWUALA, EMMANUEL UWAIYA.


Abstract
The study investigated the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial effects of chloroform fractions and residual methanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peels dried at different environmental conditions on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger (test pathogens) using the Agar - Well diffusion method. The results of the analysis showed that the phytochemical constituents of Citrus sinensis peels were not affected by the different drying conditions of the peels. The presence of tannins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and phenols was observed in both residual methanolic extracts (A and B) while no saponins and anthroquinones were found in the extracts. Only cardiac glycoside was present in the chloroform fractions (X and Y). Significant inhibitory effects of all the extracts on some of the organisms were recorded. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the extracts ranged between 12.5 to 50 mg/ml. Extract A indicated the best MIC value of 12.5 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the extracts, ranged between 25 to 100 mg/ml. An extended inhibitory activity was observed for extract B against Escherichia coli possibly due to the drying condition of the peels, however, with a higher MIC value of 50 mg/ml and a bacteriostatic effect. None of the extracts showed antifungal activity. The moderate antibacterial activity demonstrated by the extracts, depicts the medicinal potentials of Citrus sinensis peels thus, justifying its use in ethnomedicine against bacterial pathogens.

Key words: Antimicrobial, Citrus sinensis, pathogens, peels, phytochemical.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

MADUMELU M, IWUALA BN, UWAIYA E. Phytochemical constituents of methanolic and chloroform extracts of citrus sinensis peels and their antimicrobial effects on some human pathogens. Equijost. 2023; 10(1): 1-6.


Web Style

MADUMELU M, IWUALA BN, UWAIYA E. Phytochemical constituents of methanolic and chloroform extracts of citrus sinensis peels and their antimicrobial effects on some human pathogens. https://www.equijost.com/?mno=55370 [Access: March 01, 2024].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

MADUMELU M, IWUALA BN, UWAIYA E. Phytochemical constituents of methanolic and chloroform extracts of citrus sinensis peels and their antimicrobial effects on some human pathogens. Equijost. 2023; 10(1): 1-6.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

MADUMELU M, IWUALA BN, UWAIYA E. Phytochemical constituents of methanolic and chloroform extracts of citrus sinensis peels and their antimicrobial effects on some human pathogens. Equijost. (2023), [cited March 01, 2024]; 10(1): 1-6.



Harvard Style

MADUMELU, M., IWUALA, . B. N. & UWAIYA, . E. (2023) Phytochemical constituents of methanolic and chloroform extracts of citrus sinensis peels and their antimicrobial effects on some human pathogens. Equijost, 10 (1), 1-6.



Turabian Style

MADUMELU, MARK, BEATRICE NKIRUKA IWUALA, and EMMANUEL UWAIYA. 2023. Phytochemical constituents of methanolic and chloroform extracts of citrus sinensis peels and their antimicrobial effects on some human pathogens. Equity Journal of Science and Technology, 10 (1), 1-6.



Chicago Style

MADUMELU, MARK, BEATRICE NKIRUKA IWUALA, and EMMANUEL UWAIYA. "Phytochemical constituents of methanolic and chloroform extracts of citrus sinensis peels and their antimicrobial effects on some human pathogens." Equity Journal of Science and Technology 10 (2023), 1-6.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

MADUMELU, MARK, BEATRICE NKIRUKA IWUALA, and EMMANUEL UWAIYA. "Phytochemical constituents of methanolic and chloroform extracts of citrus sinensis peels and their antimicrobial effects on some human pathogens." Equity Journal of Science and Technology 10.1 (2023), 1-6. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

MADUMELU, M., IWUALA, . B. N. & UWAIYA, . E. (2023) Phytochemical constituents of methanolic and chloroform extracts of citrus sinensis peels and their antimicrobial effects on some human pathogens. Equity Journal of Science and Technology, 10 (1), 1-6.





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